1. In recent years you have put a lot of work into promoting management. Can you explain briefly what you mean by management innovation and why you put so much emphasis on it as opposed to other forms of innovation such as product or business model innovation?
For me, the term “management” encompasses all the tools and processes we use to get things done in organizations. Management includes activities such as planning, organizing, coordinating, evaluating, and controlling. In this sense, management is the “social technology” human beings use to mobilize and organize resources for productive ends. Over the past century, fundamental advances in management—like the development of the divisionalized organization, strategic planning, kaizen and, more recently, open innovation have dramatically extended human capabilities. Our research strongly suggests that management innovation has been, and continues to be, a critical source of competitive advantage. Having said that, few companies have a well-developed process for continually innovating and evolving their management practices.